Sunday, November 23, 2014

OSI Model (Open System Interconnection) - Computer Networks

In this tutorial we will learn about OSI Model, 7 layers of OSI, their working functions, and TCP/IP model and their layers.

OSI Model (Open System Interconnection) is connection system which is developed by ISO (International standards organization).  OSI Model has 7 layers which work as a communication functions.

OSI Model’s 7 Layers are;

OSI Model
1. Physical Layer: - Physical layer is first or lowest layer of OSI model. It creates physical connections.

2. Data Link Layer:- Data link layer helps in encoding data packets and provides error free node to node data transmission. Data link layer is further divided in two more sub layers;
      a. Media Access control Layer (MAC) helps system to access data transmission.
      b. Logical Link layer (LLC) Controls Order, Flow and Error of frames.

3. Network Layer: - Network Layer helps in switching and routing also creates virtual circuits.

4. Transport Layer: - Transport layer helps in transparent data transmission.

5. Session Layer: - Session Layer helps in Transmission session. It is responsible for starting session, Maintaining and terminating communication.

6. Presentation layer: - Presentation Layer helps in data independence or in other words it represents data.

7. Application Layer:- Application Layer is topmost layer of OSI Model, this layer interacts with end users directly. Application layer has to do authorization process.

Each layer helps to create error free data communication and each layer depends on another layer.

How to remember OSI Model’s Layer?

You need to remember all 7 layers and as mentioned above, all layers are depends on each other, it has to be in same sequence.  So, lets take first latter of each layer’s name  than we got PDNTSPA ( hope you can get full name after getting hint of first latter).

Please Do Not Throw Susage Pizza Away (PDNTSPA).

Hope now you will remember all layers names of OSI Model.

TCP/IP Model (Transport Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

TCP/IP Model
TCP/IP Model has 4 Layers which are mentioned below;
  1. Network Interface Layer
  2. Internet Layer
  3. Transport Layer
  4. Application Layer
ISO who developed TCP/Ip Model has just use extra layers to develop OSI Model. You can check below mentioned image where you can find Different between OSI model and TCP/IP model.

Also read Basic of Computer Networks.
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Saturday, November 22, 2014

IBPS Specialist Officer HR Salary - [Salary Slip]

Are you looking for Salary Slip of IBPS Specialist Officer Human Resource? Friends, here is salary slip of IBPS SO HR (Assistant Manager Scale 1), On Hand Salary of IBPS SO HR, Basic Pay, other benefits of HR Officer Scale 1 via IBPS SO Job.

IBPS Specialist Officer HR Salary - [Salary Slip]

We have received request on our facebook page to put up salary slip of IBPS Specialist officer HR (Scale 1). So, here is salary slip of HR officer who got job via ibps specialist officer. Below is screen shot of PDF Salary Slip of IBPS HR Officer.

Click on image to view it large.
So, you can see, HR officer get Rs.15,500/- Basic Pay, Rs.14,855/- as Dearness allowance, Rs.375/- as city allowance. if you need any more information, you can comment below.

Keep visiting us for more updates on ibps, study material for specialist officer and much more for bank exam aspirants.

Also read:- On hand salary of IT Officer (IBPS specialist officer)
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Current Affairs of 22nd November, 2014

Read the Current affairs of 22nd November, 2014 from sports world, national, banking, finance, defense and all other categories. 

Current Affairs of 22nd November, 2014

  • Government of india has approved Rs.43,033Cr of scheme called “Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojna” for rural electrification.
    • This scheme is updated version of previous government’s Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY).
    • This scheme (“Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojna”) was earlier applied in Gujarat as Jyoti Gram Yojna.

  • Jan Dhan Yojana Statistical updated. As of now there are total 7.1 crore bank accounts are opened under the scheme of Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, out of 5.3 crore accounts are having Zero balance.

    • Also, Government of india has deposited Rs.5,400 cr in bank accounts under Rs.5000 of draft money for each account.
    • PMJDY is a national mission started by Prime minister narendra modi to give financial inclusion to access financial service to all Indians.

  • India’s First own Aircraft carrier Ship “INS Vikrant” is now history.

    • Mumbai's IB Commercials Pvt Ltd will scrap entire ship, this company won bid of scrapping for Rs.63cr.
    • INS Vikrant was Built for the British Royal Navy as HMS Hercules in 1943, later in 1957 Indian Government acquired it.
    • INS Vikrant has played Key role in 1971 War (between India-Pakistan).

  • N. Srinivasan reinstatement as BCCI President, as he seek reinstatement from honorable supreme court of india.

    • N. Srinivasan has got clean chit by Mukul mugdal committee report in IPL 6 Sport Fixing case.
    • Also, India Cements company (whose Managing director is N Srinivasan) has pleaded with the court for not to pass any adverse order against cancellation of Chennai Super Kings (IPL Team).

  • New Defense minister of India Shree Manohar Parrikar today clear proposal for buying new 814 artillery guns for Rs.16,000 Crores (approx).
  • IAAF World Athletes of the year 2014 award goes to French pole valuter Renaud Lavilenie and New Zealand’s shotputter Valerie Adams.
Also Read :- Current Affairs of 21st November, 2014
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IBPS PO 2014 Cut Off Marks/Subject Wise Cut Off

www.ibps.in - Are you appeared in IBPO PO 2014 Online Test? Here is Cut off marks of IBPS PO 2014/IBPS CWE-PO/MT-IV Cut Off Marks. This cut off marks are divided in 2 parts, one is subject wise and one on total score students got.

IBPS PO 2014 Cut Off Marks/Subject Wise Cut Off

IBPS PO 2014 Cut Off
IBPS has announced Cut off marks of Online CWE for recruitment of Probationary Officers/ Management Trainees(CWE-PO/MT-IV) in Participating Organisations for the vacancies in 2015-16. Candidate who are looking for cut off marks for IBPS PO 2014 can check the cut off marks below.

Subject Wise Cut off Marks of IBPS CWE-PO/MT-IV

Sr. No Name of subject Maximum marks SC/ST/PWD Cut off General Cut off
1. Quantitative Aptitude 50 4 7
2. Reasoning 50 6 10
3. English Language 40 6 8
4. Computer Knowledge 20 9 11
5. General awareness 40 7 10

- As you can see, Computer knowledge has got highest cut off marks, 11 out of 20 marks, Reasoning also was easy and general awareness as always was kinda easy.Now check the category wise cut off marks.

Category wise Cut off marks for IBPS CWE-PO/MT-IV

Category Cut off marks out of 200 (max marks)
Schedule Caste (SC) 70
Schedule Tribe (ST) 56
Other backward class (OBC) 80
General (GN) 82
Hearing Impaired (HI) 36
Orthopedically challenged (OC) 61
Visually Impaired (VI) 38

Note :- Note: Cutoffs were applied in two stages: (i) on scores in individual tests (ii) on Total Score The details of the cutoffs applied on Scores, of online examination, in individual tests and on Total Score is given below at (II) and (III) respectively.

Source :- http://www.ibps.in/career_pdf/CWE_PO_MT_IV_Process_Standard_Scores.pdf
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Basic of Computer Networks

In this tutorial we will learn about basic of computer networks, aspects of computer networks, basic types of computer networks, and network topology.

Basic of Computer Networks

Computer Networks
A computer network or data network is a telecommunications network that allows computers to exchange data. In computer networks, networked computing devices pass data to each other along data connections. Data is transferred in the form of packets.

There are two aspects of computer network (things needed in computer network);

1. Hardware: - Adapter, cable, router, bridge are need to create network of computers/physical connection.


2. Software: - Computer network protocols needed to run connection.

What are the basic types of computer networks?


1. LAN (Local area network):- It’s a most basic computer network which works in local area (nearby area). Mostly LAN is used for networking in 2Km area; sometimes even more close (building, office etc).

2. MAN (Metropolitan Area Networks):- If we need to connect large area than LAN, than we use MAN.  Mostly, A city or a Area is connected via MAN.

3. WAN (Wide area networks):- For Long distance networks, we use WAN Networks. Connection between two countries or other end of world is connected via WAN.

Difference Between LAN, MAN, and WAN;

Subject LAN MAN WAN
Are Covers Very small (a building, hospital) Average (more than LAN) More Than WAN (countries, two cities
Error Rate Very low More than LAN, less than WAN Very high
Transmission Rate speed High Speed Average speed Low Speed
Cost Very low Average Very High

Different Network Topology

You got to know about types of network (what is network is clear) but do you know how network is connected? To connect networks, we use network topology. Network topology tell us how to connect two systems.

There are basically 7 network topologies we use; let’s check them in detail;

1. Line Topology:-  If we use single cable to connect multiple systems, it is called line topology.

2. Tree Topology: - If we use hierarchical order to connect systems, it is called tree topology.

3. Bus Topology: - If we use back bone (wires) to connect systems, it is called bus topology.

4. Star Topology: - In star topology, different computers are connected to one computer (hub).

5. Ring Topology :- In ring topology, all systems are connected in ring, in other words if we connect last system with first system in Line topology, it is called ring topology.

6. Mesh Topology: - If we connect different computer with each other, it is called mesh topology (but it is not necessary that one system is connected to all other systems) in network.

7. Fully connected: - If network system’s each and every system is connected to all other system in network, it is called fully connected.

Read about Database Management System Overview.
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IBPS PO 2014 Candidates Shortlisted for Interviews

www.ibps.in - IBPS has announced list of candidates who shortlisted for interview process for IBPS PO/MT-IV. The candidates who shortlisted for Interview process should start preparation for Interview of IBPS PO 2014. The interviews of IBPS PO 2014 will be taken in January 2015.

IBPS PO 2014 Candidates Shortlisted for Interviews

IBPS PO 2014
In one the notification shared by IBPS, they announced roll no of candidates who shortlisted and called for personal interview after clearing IBPO PO Online Test. The candidate who are going for Personal interview are advised to check their roll no list and cross check their no in the list. if you have cleared the online test and not listed in above interview shortlist, than you are advised to contact IBPS official on their call center.

Click here to check IBPS PO 2014 Candidates Shortlisted for Interviews.

Note :- All documents are prescribed in the advertisement and or call letter should be produced without any exception at the time of interview.

Candidature of the candidates failing to produce such prescribed documents at the time of interview shall be summarily rejected without any intimation or notice and they also will not be permitted to participate in interview.

How many candidates are called for Interview?

Total of 48820 candidates have been called for IBPS PO IV interviews. So guys be ready to perform well in ibps po interviews as there will be tough fight.

How many seats are going to be filled via ibps po?

If we use previous formula for recruitment of candidate called for interviews and selected candidate, it is used to be 1:3 (means 3 candidates will be called for 1 post). So, around 17,000-18,000 seats will be filled. 

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Database Security - DBMS

In this tutorial we will learn about Database security, why we need database security, how can we achieve database security.

Database Security

Database Security
Database security concerns the use of database data, data stored in database should be secure, no unauthorized user should not access database.  Database security’s responsibility is to protect data without affecting their confidentiality, integrity and availability. Database security involves various types of security like technical, administrative and physical.

Why we need database security?

To stop Unauthorized or unintended activity or misuse of database. Only authorized person should have access to database. 

To protect database from Malware infections, denial of authorized access to the database.

To protect database from physical damage by fire, flood, overheating, lighting, static discharge, electronic breakdowns/equipment failures and obsolescence;

To protect database from program failure, programming bugs, design flaws, this creates security vulnerabilities.

How we can achieve database security?

Access control: - Only authorized user can access database, we can define access control roles to different user group. (i.e employee can only fill their own attendance, they cannot edit past attendance).

Auditing :-  Database auditing involves observing a database so as to be aware of the actions of database users.

Authentication :- Its process of confirming that the user is the same user which is claim to be. We can use passwords for each users.

Encryption:- Encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can read it.

Integrity controls :-  Non-authorized user should not edit or view data, we need to maintain accuracy and consistency of data.

Backups :- we have to take regular backups (copy of data) to avoid data loss.

Application security :- To avoid gaps in security policy of an application we need to use test application security.

Also read Above SQL Query Overview and Database Design.
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